The ceramic tiles and porcelain gres are strong finishing mate-
rials but shall be protected against any shocks.
Ceramic floor tiles and porcelain gres can be of different sizes.
It is strongly rec-
ommended to use the products of the same calibre to facilitate tile paving (includ-
ing laying of tiles with different article numbers).
The actual size of the edged porcelain gres is smaller than the nominal size within
the standard tolerance limits.
The catalogue contains the nominal size.
Different lots of ceramic tiles and porcelain gres may have slightly different colour.
Pay attention to the shade identification mark. It is strongly recommended to pur-
chase the products of the same shade.
Tile face curvature
– deviation of the ceramic tile and porcelain gres surface from
the plane. The tolerance limits regulating the tile face curvature are set in the reg-
ulatory documents and shall be used by the manufacturer to sort out the products.
Insignificant positive (convexity) and negative (concavity) deviations within the tol-
erance limits shall not be a basis for the rejection.
Taking care of decorative products and tiles with metallized surface.
products with a gold, platinum or metal-based pigments application, as well as
ceramic tiles and porcelain gres with decorative metallized surface require thor-
ough care. To remove dirt it is recommended to use weak soap solution, non-
abrasive pH-neutral washing agents, non-abrasive household chemical products
like the one for enameled tableware. After the dirt is removed rinse the tile with
clean water. Use soft fabric or sponge for cleaning. It is not allowed to use abra-
sive cleansing agents and abrasive materials! Do not use acid-containing prod-
ucts! Before use of washing and cleansing agents it is recommended to test them
on an unnoticeable tile’s area.
Edged (rectified) ceramic tiles and porcelain gres
– a product subject to additional
mechanical treatment, i.e. edged in length and width (rectified – Ital. rettifica – cor-
rection, rectification). Edged ceramic tiles and porcelain gres is of uniform size,
which allows laying it with minimum joints.
Lappato porcelain gres
is manufactured with utilization of surface grinding, lappato
technology (Ital. lappato - buffed, polished), which is widely used today. The tech-
nology is intended for production of porcelain gres with an inimitable pattern on
its front-face surface. Special grinding stones are used for this purpose. Unlike
conventional polishing, grinding takes less time and a thinner layer is removed
from the surface of porcelain gres, which improves its technical characteristics.
The pattern, or the ornament, does not change depending on the used type of
lappato, which is additional surface treatment.
There are several types of lappato:
– Lappato type
(Ital.). Various materials are applied to the surface of a
tile for achieving a light-structured surface; after that superficial polishing of the
“tops” is performed. This technology allows producing the effect of a semi-polished
surface. Such treatment results in an inimitable pattern and unique, combined,
heterogeneous finish: polished segments mixed with a rough surface.
– Lappato type
(Ital.) A significant layer of special material is ap-
plied to the surface of a tile; after that the tile is treated to imitate a smooth, polished
surface without irregularities, inclusions, etc.
Porcelain gres care has a number of specific features.
After tile laying it is necessary to clean the surface as soon as possible, treat it with
a lean acid solution, having wetted tile grout lines with water beforehand. In 15
minutes, it is recommended to clean the whole surface with clean water. When
using cleaning agents, which contain strong acids, it is necessary to avoid their
contact with the tile grout line.
Polished and lapped porcelain gres
shall require special care during laying and
further use. Polishing and lapping result in the opening of micropores on the sur-
face of the porcelain gres. Oil and colouring substances penetrating into these
pores can result in the formation of permanent stains. It is important:
– to prevent the application of an adhesive compound at the face of the tile.
If the adhesive compound is applied to the tile face, immediately remove it
with a clean wet cloth;
– to use float grout of the same color as the tiles. When using contrasting
float grout, it is necessary to test it on a small area first in order to make
sure that the surface can be easily cleaned. If coloring occurs, it is recom-
mended to treat the surface with a protective agent (KIILTO COAT (Finland),
ATLAS DELFIN (Poland)), preventing penetration of coloring agents into
micropores, which might be on the surface of the tile.
– to avoid using abrasive cleaning agents as to prevent scratches;
– to put a mat to clean the shoes at the entrance door of the premises with
the polished or lapped porcelain gres floor;
– to restrict the use of polished and lapped porcelain gres in the eating areas
and places where it is planned to use coloring agents, oils and other liquids
(due to the increasing risk related to higher slipping of the material);
– to treat the surface with special means after laying to prevent the penetra-
tion of oil, grease and colouring agents into the micropores at the tile face;
– it is strongly recommended to test any and all cleaning agents, chemical
compounds and float grout on a small concealed area first in order to pre-
vent any undesired effect on the faced surface. FILA, MELLERUD,
BELLINZONI and AKEMI companies offer a wide range of polished and
lapped porcelain gres care products.Before use of any chemical products,
read carefully the manufacturer’s requirements.
Porcelain gres laying recommendations.
Before laying, it is necessary to make
sure the material meets the requirements in terms of its amount, tone, and caliber.
Laying must be performed by qualified personnel equipped with necessary tools.
The surface used for laying shall be level, without significant differences in height
(not more than 3 mm per 2 m). An adhesive shall be selected depending on the
surface, type of tiles, and their format. When laying rectangular tiles with a shift,
the size of the shift shall not exceed 30% of the length of the longest side of tiles.
Joints are the most important element in keeping the faced surface in
proper condition. The recommended minimum joint for rectified tiles is 2 mm, for
non-rectified tiles - 3-4 mm depending on the nominal size. Tiles, bracing elements,
floor, walls, etc. must have joints. Smoothing out can be performed only after the
adhesive is fully dry. Joints shall be clean, free of excessive adhesive and dust.
Smoothing agent shall have the same color as the tiles. When using smoothing
agent of a contrasting color, it shall be first tested on a small-size area in order to
make sure the surface can be cleaned easily. If the area gets colored, treat the
surface of the tiles with protective agent (KILTO COAT, ATLAS DELFIN) preventing
coloring pigments from penetrating into the microrelief and microvoids that might
be present on the surface of the tiles.
Cleaning is necessary for restoring the original appearance of
the surface. Thorough cleaning shall be performed with the use of neutral deter-
gents. Large areas can be cleaned with professional floor-cleaning machines in
combination with manual cleaning, when necessary. Abrasive and wax-containing
materials are not recommended for use. Heavily stained areas shall be cleaned
with specialized floor cleaners and, if necessary, stain removers for ceramic sur-
faces may be used.
Read carefully the manufacturer’s instructions of all the materials used!